Know More About Router for Computer Networks

It is undeniable that the Internet narrows the distance between each other, making the world smaller. Benefiting from high speed information network, we are able to know what’s happening around the world without going out, as long as you have a computer which can get access to the Internet. How can your computer get access to the Internet? Just plug one end of Ethernet cable into the network port. But where is the other end of Ethernet cable plugged into? The answer is router, which is the topic of this article. Keeping reading, and you will know more about it.

Overview of Router

From the external appearance, router is a small plastic or metal box-shaped electronic device. It features a number of physical ports on the front or back of the unit, such as WAN (wide area network) port, LAN (local area network) port and power input port. Also, there are some LED lights to display device status. As the WAN port and LAN port are rj45 interface, they are often connected with ri45 patch cable, such as cat5e ethernet cable, cat6 ethernet cable, Cat7 ethernet cable. Traditional routers are designed to join together multiple local area networks (LANs) with a wide area network (WAN), so there are four LAN ports (LAN1-4) and one WAN port on router. In addition, the WAN port is connected with modem or switch while the LAN port is connected with computer. To have a better understanding of router’s outer structure, Here is figure for you.

router
Working Principle of Router

In technical terms, a router is a Layer 3 network gateway device, meaning that it connects two or more networks and that the router operates at the network layer of the OSI model. Routers contain a processor (CPU), several kinds of digital memory, and input-output (I/O) interfaces. They function as special-purpose computers, one that does not require a keyboard or display. The router’s memory stores an embedded operating system (O/S). Compared to general-purpose OS products like Microsoft Windows or Apple Mac OS, router operating systems limit what kind of applications can be run on them and also need much smaller amounts of storage space. Examples of popular router operating systems include Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS) and DD-WRT. These operating systems are manufactured into a binary firmware image and are commonly called router firmware. By maintaining configuration information in a part of memory called the routing table, routers also can filter both incoming or outgoing traffic based on the addresses of senders and receivers. In simple terms, router serves as intermediate destinations for network traffic. It receives incoming network packets, looks inside each packet to identify the source and target network addresses, then forwards these packets where needed to ensure the data reaches its final destination.

Conclusion

In our daily life, router can be seen everywhere. In fact, there are different kinds of routers for specific applications, such as home broadband router for home network, edge router for an ISP network, subscriber edge router for subscriber’s network and so on. Learning about some basic knowledge about router helps to understand different functions of different router and this will save time on solving problem especially when we come across the situation where router break down. Here I recommend two of the top router seller: TP-LINK and NETGEAR. Though FS.COM does not provide router, you can find high quality ethernet cable here at low price, such as 1m cat5e ethernet cable is US$ 0.91, 1m cat6 ethernet cable is US$ 1.00 and 1m Cat7 ethernet cable is US$ 12.00. For more details, please visit our site.

All About Cat7

Network has become an indispensable part of our daily life. Many homes and businesses today deploy network with either a wired network connection or a wireless connection, and these two network connection methods have their own advantages: wired connection is typically faster than wireless connection and has lower latency; while wireless connection makes it easier to get access to the network from nearly any convenient location. As network technology has kept stepping forward, these two types of network hardware also continue to advance, satisfying the requirements of users. Take wired connection for example, now a newer cable category is Cat7 ethernet cable. This article will focus on Cat7 and share the advantages and disadvantages of Cat7 cabling.

Overview of Cat7

Cat7 ethernet cable is not currently recognized by TIA/EIA, but it is designed to support 10G Ethernet with distance up to 100 meters. It can offer transmission frequencies of up to 600 MHz, which is 6 times larger than Cat5e and 2.4 times larger than Cat6. The Cat7 ethernet cable contains four twisted copper wire pairs, just like the earlier standards, and shielding has been added for individual wire pairs and the cable as a whole. In addition, Cat7 ethernet cable is terminated with GG45 (GigaGate45) connector, which is still compatible cat5e cable and cat6 cable with RJ45 connector.

Cat7 ethernet cable

Advantages And Disadvantages of Cat7 Cabling

Though Cat7 ethernet cable is a newer cable category, it is not the best choice for all network deployment. Why? Keeping reading and you will find the answer in the following part.

Advantages
  • Cat7 has higher bandwidth of up to 600 MHz, which is 6 times larger than Cat5e (100 MHz) and 2.4 times larger than Cat6 (250 MHz).
  • Cat 7 has an overall shield as well as individual shielding of every pair. It performs better to protect against outside interference. Therefore, it is suitable for installing in strong RFI & EMI environment.
  • Cat7 is thicker, more bulky, and more difficult to bend.
  • Cat7 is regarded as the most durable cable and has a longer lifespan of fifteen years than cat5e cable and cat6 cable.
  • Cat7 is compatible with preceding Ethernet cable standards like Cat5e and Cat6. as a result, users can move Cat5e cable or Cat6 cable from existing copper based LAN and install Cat7 without having to change the existing electronics.
Disadvantages
  • Cat7 ethernet cable is not currently recognized by TIA/EIA. It is not a solid, established industry standard.
  • Cat7 is very heavy. Individual pair and overall shielding increases the overall weight and size of Cat7, which makes it not an job for Cat7 cabling. Larger & stronger pathway and more stringent bend radius (100 mm or 4 inch) are required.
  • Cat7 is more expensive. Individual pair and overall shielding also means higher labor costs and more work towards cable termination.
  • Cat7 cabling may cause ground loop problems. If both ends of the cable are connected to ground, it will lead to ground loops which are a major cause of noise, hum, and interference in audio, video, and computer systems. They can also create an electric shock hazard, since ostensibly “grounded” parts of the equipment, which are often accessible to users, are not at ground potential.
Conclusion

For home network deployment, it is not a great option, because it is more expensive and Cat7 cabling is complicated. However, Cat7 is suitable for the place where needs high speed data transmission and is high EMI environment. Therefore, in order to get a successful network deployment, you have to make a careful plan, be familiar with environment, confirm the requirement of network deployment and choose the right transmission media. FS.COM offers the best and most versatile copper cables including Cat5e, Cat6 and Cat7 products. For more details, please visit our site.

Originally published at: http://www.fiber-optical-networking.com/all-about-cat7.html

Solid Cable vs. Stranded Cable

As we know, bulk Ethernet cable can be divided into unshielded twisted cable (UTP) and shielded cable (STP) according to the structure of shielding. Apart from this, bulk Ethernet cable can also be divided into solid cable and stranded cable. These two types of bulk Ethernet cables have their individual features and advantages. As they can be easily found in Ethernet network applications, how much do you know about them? This article will mainly make a comparison between solid cable and stranded cable.

Overview of Solid and Stranded Cable

Solid cable is made up of a single and solid wire per conductor. That means in four twisted pairs cat6 cable reel, there are a total eight solid wires. This type of cable is used for home electrical cabling, cabling for breadboards and other situations where cables are not required to be constantly flexed. Stranded cable consists of multiple smaller-gauge wires wrapped around each other in each conductor. That is to say in a four twisted pairs Ethernet cable with seven strands per conductor, there are a total of fifty-six wires. This type of cable is typically used in situations where cables need to be routed into tight spaces or experience frequent flexing or vibrations. To better understand the difference of the inner structure between solid cable and stranded cable, here is a figure for you.

Solid cable and Stranded Cable

Comparison Between Solid Cable and Stranded Cable

With different structural designs, both solid cable and stranded cable have advantages and disadvantages. Hence, the following part will focus on the advantages and disadvantages of these two types of cables.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Solid Cable

Solid cable is often favored because of its cheaper production costs. It is simple but quite durable. With single and solid wire, solid cable is very easy to produce. Solid cable also has a much more compact diameter compared to stranded cable. Though the sized is reduced, it still has the same carrying ability as stranded cable. In addition, solid cable is less likely to fail due to the corrosion. However, one of the main problems with solid cable is that it is typically only available in small gauges. Also, if there is constant flexing or vibration, the cable would eventually wear down and break, resulting in the need for a replacement. Therefore, solid cable is not optimal for applications like robotics or vehicles that require a considerable amount of movement. The figure below shows the detail information about gray solid cat6 bulk cable 1000 ft from FS.COM and the price is about US$ 130.00, which is really a cost-effective option.

product datails about cat6 bulk cable 1000 ft

Advantages and Disadvantages of Stranded Cable

Stranded cable is easier to route in comparison to solid cable. It is very flexible. And stranded cable can withstand an incredible amount of vibrations and flexing without fatiguing and breaking. As a result, you won’t have to replace your stranded cables as often as will be necessary with solid cable. But stranded cable is more expensive. It is more costly to produce due to the more complex manufacturing process that is required to develop these intricate wires. Also, stranded cable is much more likely to fail as a result of corrosion from capillary action. In addition, stranded cable has a higher attenuation, so it is not suitable for long runs.

Conclusion

With the diversity and popularity of the bulk Ethernet cable, it is critical to choose the right type of cable for the network deployment. Like the two types of Ethernet cables mentioned above, the solid cable is less flexible but cheaper than the stranded cable, and it is less likely to fail due to the corrosion. If you want to make a permanent cabling, then the solid cable is a good choice for you which will save you a lot. But if your cabling network needs to move cables constantly, then you are strongly suggested to choose the stranded cable.

Understand 10GBASE-T in Depth

Today, the Ethernet cabling system market is dominated by 10G links. Although fiber optic cables become popular with the advantages of high data transmission rate and low latency, many IT departments still use copper cabling for switch-to-switch or switch-to-server connections in 10G Ethernet applications. As one major copper cabling technology applied for 10GbE, 10GBASE-T was released by IEEE 802.3an in 2006 which specifies 10Gbps data transmission over four-pair copper cabling. Then, how much do you know about it? This article will guide you to understand 10GBASE-T in depth from five aspects—reach, backward compatibility, power consumption, latency and cost.

Reach

10GBASE-T is able to reach transmission distances up to 100 meters, and Cat6, Cat6a, Cat7, these three types of copper cables are commonly used with the 10GBASE-T standard. Cat6 bulk cable can perform at the bandwidth of up to 250 MHz, but it may reach only 55 meters at the speed of 10Gbps and 33 meters in high crosstalk conditions; Cat6a bulk cable is defined at frequencies up to 500MHz, and it can support the transmission distance over 100 meters at the speed of 10Gbps; Cat7 bulk cable can deliver 10G performance up to 600 MHz and at a distance of up to 100 meters. Here is a figure of a roll of cat6 cable.

roll of cat6 cable

Backward Compatibility

We know that Cat6 bulk cable, Cat6a bulk cable and Cat7 bulk cable are backward compatible with the Cat5 and Cat5e bulk cable standards, so these three types of cables can also be used for 10BASE-T, 100BASE-T and 1000BASE-T applications, though a little overqualified. Moreover, 10GBASE-T is backward compatible with 1000BAE-T. Therefore, 10GBASE-T can be deployed in preceding 1GbE switch infrastructures in data centers that are cabled with Cat6, Cat6a or Cat7 cabling. This enables data center managers to save costs while upgrading the network to 10GbE.

Power Consumption

According to the study, the early physical layer interface chips (PHYs) consumed too much power for widespread adoption. The original gigabit chips were roughly 6.5 Warts per port. With the process of improvements, the chips are now under 1 Wart per port. In addition, the PHYs benefit a lot from the latest manufacturing processes in 10GBASE-T. And the technology will continue to reduce the power consumption of PHYs.

Latency

Depending on Ethernet packet size, the latency for 1000BASE-T ranges from below 1μs to over 12μs, while 10GBASE-T’s latency ranges from just 1μs to less than 4μs—a much tighten latency range. And with a larger packet size, 10GBASE-T’s overall throughput offers an advantage over 1000BASE-T, and the latency for 10GBASE-T is more than three times lower than that of 1000BASE-T. The 1μs latency of 10GBASE-T is of no consequence to most users. Only the most latent-sensitive applications such as High Performance Computer (HPC) or high frequency trading systems would be affected by normal 10GbE latency.

Cost

As for cost, copper cables are cheaper, which is one reason for their wide applications. Take cables of FS.COM for example, Cat6 cable 1000 ft is about US$ 130.00; Cat6a cable 1000 ft is about US$ 180.00; Cat7 cable 305m is about US$ 600.00. Though 10G SFP+ DAC Twinax Cable is about US$ 42.00, from the perspective of structured cabling, it has a limited distance (up to 10m), and is not as flexible or cost-effective as 10GBASE-T.

Conclusion

From the above content, we can learn that 10GBASE-T offers the lowest cost media, and is backward compatible with preceding 1GbE networks. It can not only satisfy the increased bandwidth needs, but also greatly simplify the network and lower power consumption by replacing multiple gigabit connections with a single or dual-port 10GbE connection. Hence, it is an idea choice for 10G Ethernet copper cabling. And I hope after reading this article, you can have a better understanding on 10GBASE-T. FS.COM provides cost-effective solution for your 10BASE-T Ethernet network deployment. If you want to know more details, please visit our site.

Difference Between Straight-Through Cable and Crossover Cable

It is well known that bulk Ethernet cable consists of four twisted pairs of copper wires and utilizes them to support data transmission between devices. To meet the demand of increasingly higher data rates and larger bandwidths, Ethernet cables have been upgraded constantly, from cat5, cat5e, cat6, cat6a to cat7. Although various types of Ethernet cables look the same, the internal wiring scheme distinguishes. With different wire arrangements inside the cables, Ethernet cables can be divided into straight-through cables and crossover cables. Then, what is the difference between them? This article will tell the answer.

Different Wiring Standards for Wire Arrangements

Before discussing the difference between straight-through cable and crossover cable, it is necessary to learn about two wiring standards—T568A and T568B, which can help you better understand the different wire arrangements inside these two types of cables. T568A and T568B wiring standards are recognized by ANSI, TIA and EIA for wiring Ethernet cables. Generally speaking, T568B is more widely used than T568A. And T568B is regarded as the default wiring scheme for twisted pair structured cabling. Here is a figure of T568A and T568B wiring standards, from which we can easily find that the only difference between T568A and T568B is the orientation of the green and orange wire pairs.

T568A and T568B

Comparison of Straight-Through Cable and Crossover Cable

As mentioned above, straight-through cable and crossover cable are designed with different wire arrangements for serving different purposes. Hence, the following part will focus on the comparison of these two types of cables from these two aspects.

Different Wire Arrangements

Straight-through cable uses one wiring standard. That means both ends of one straight-through cable use T568A wiring standard or T568B wiring standard. As for crossover cable, it uses two wiring standards: one end uses the T568A wiring standard, and the other end uses the T568B wiring standard. The internal wiring of crossover cables reverses the transmit and receive signals. For a better understanding of inner wire arrangements of straight-through cable and crossover cable, here are two figures for you.

Straight-through cable

Crossover cable

Different Applications

Straight-through cable is the most common type which is easy to find in stores. It is used to connect different type of devices, such as connecting a computer to a switch/hub’s normal port or a cable/DSL modem’s LAN port; a router’s WAN port to a cable/DSL modem’s LAN port; a router’s LAN port to a switch/hub’s uplink port (normally used for expanding network); 2 switches/hubs with one of the switch/hub using an uplink port and the other one using normal port. While crossover cables may be a little harder to find since they aren’t used nearly as much as straight-through cables. They are usually used to connect the same type of devices, like connecting 2 computers directly; a router’s LAN port to a switch/hub’s normal port (normally used for expanding network); 2 switches/hubs by using normal port in both switches/hubs.

Conclusion

Straight-through cable and crossover cable are structured with different wire arrangements and used for different applications. The straight-through cable is usually used for connecting two different kinds of devices, while the crossover cable is commonly used to connect the same type of devices. If you want to distinguish these two types of cables, you can just have a look at the order of the colored wires inside the RJ45 connector. If the color orders of the wires are the same on both ends, it means it is a straight-through cable. If not, it’s mostly like a crossover cable or there may be a wiring error inside the cable. At present, straight-through cable is much more popular than crossover cable and is widely used by people. FS.COM provides a full range straight-through bulk Ethernet cables with many colors and lengths options, such as red cat5e cable 1000 ft. If you want to know more details, please visit our site.

UTP Cable vs. STP Cable

It is well known that twisted pair cable consists of a pair of insulated wires twisted together, which is widely used for Ethernet cable. In general, there are several types of twisted pair cables, such as, UTP (unshielded twisted pair) cable, STP (shielded twisted pair) cable, SSTP (screened shielded twisted pair) and FTP (foil twisted pair). Among these cables, UTP and STP are the two most commonly used cables which occupy the majority of the market. Are you familiar with UTP cable and STP cable? What is the difference between UTP and STP cables? Which one is better? If you don’t have enough knowledge of these two kinds of cables, you may feel confused when you plan to buy bulk Ethernet cables. As it is necessary to make a choice between UTP and STP cables for deploying the network, this article is going to introduce these two kinds of twisted pair cables in details, seeking the answer.

What Is UTP Cable?

From its name, it is easy to learn that UTP cable has no shielding. Considering that the shielding feature is mainly designed to reduce Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), does the UTP cable have this function if put into use? In fact, UTP cable reduces the interference directly through the twisted pairs inside the cable. Furthermore, without shielding, UTP cable is thinner, lighter, more flexible and more durable than STP cable, which makes cable installation easier, especially in limited space. In addition, not relying on an outer shield, less money will be spent on the maintenance of UTP cable, which is beneficial to save the investment on installation and maintenance. To better understand the inner structure of UTP cable, here is a figure for you.

UTP Cable

What Is STP Cable?

STP cable has a metal shield around each twisted pair which is composed of copper tape, a layer of conducting polymer or a braid (made of copper or aluminum mostly). The shield can be applied to each pair of the cable or to all pairs together. With the shield, EMI can be greatly reduced, which enables the high performance of data transmission between different devices. Also, the crosstalk can be efficiently prevented by the shield, which exists among the wires inside the cable. However, the shield of STP cable is quite fragile and rigid. If the shield suffers damage, the cabling system is likely to be affected by interference. Therefore, it is necessary to pay much attention to the installation and maintenance of STP cable. You can learn more about the structure of STP cable from the figure below.

STP Cable

Applications

Due to different characteristics, the two kinds of cables are used in different environment.

STP cables are often used in high EMI environment where interference is a risk. For example, airports, hospitals and factories usually have lots of machines that can produce interference, so it would be more beneficial to apply STP cables. And STP cables are also useful when cables are surrounded by fluorescent lights, microwave ovens, powerful motors and other equipment with larger electromagnetic interference.

UTP cables are typically used in offices and homes. If the interference or crosstalk is not the main concern, it is suggested to choose UTP cables which are lower in cost. But if the environment is full of powerful magnetic fields which may have an influence on the performance of network, STP cables are absolutely the optimal choice.

Conclusion

After discussion, we can learn that UTP cable is cheaper, easier to install and more suitable for environment with low EMI; while STP has a stronger ability for anti-interference and needs careful maintenance. If the place you deploy network has high EMI, STP cable is highly recommended; if the EMI is not a risk, you are suggested to choose UTP cable which is lower in cost. I hope this article can help you choose the suitable Ethernet cable. There are different types of Ethernet cables available in FS.COM, such as UTP bulk cat5e cable, STP bulk cat6 cable, UTP cat6a bulk cable, STP cat7 bulk cable and so on. If you want to know more details, please visit our site or contact us.

Things You Have to Know About RJ45

We have been used to learning about everything happening around the world without going outdoors. But have you ever noticed the Ethernet cable plugged into your computer? Or to put it specifically, the crystal connector in your computer? That’s what we called RJ45 connector. It is a common component used to connect computers into Ethernet-based local area networks (LANs). This passage is going to focus on this simple connector.

Overview of RJ45 Connector

First, let’s make sense of what RJ45 is. The letter “RJ” represents “registered jack”, which is a standardized physical network interface for connecting telecommunication or data equipment. RJ45 connector features eight pins to which the wire strands of a cable interface electrically, and eight positions, spaced about 1mm apart, into which individual wires are inserted using special cable crimping tools. RJ45 connector, so-called 8P8C (Eight Position, Eight Contact), is the most common twisted-pair connector for Ethernet cables and networks.

RJ45 connector

Color Coding Diagram of RJ45 Connector

If you look at Ethernet cable connected to your computer carefully, you will find that it is color-coded. Color-coded wiring sequences exist as a cabling industry standard. When linking RJ45 connector to a cable, there are two wiring standards—the T568A and T568B, which define how the RJ45 pin-outs to arrange the individual eight wires. Here is a figure of T568A and T568B.

T568A and T568B

With regard to the two standards, there are two different connectivity forms. If both ends of the patch cords are wired on the basis of one standard, it is a straight through connection. If not, it is a crossover connection. Here is an illustration for the color code of RJ45 connectors when they are deployed in different connections.

Straight-Through Connections

No matter with the standard T-568A or T-568B, once the color order on one end is defined, so does the other end, which means the color order is same on both ends. Take T568A straight through connection for example. The color order of one modular plug is green/white, green, orange/white, blue, blue/white, orange, brown/white and brown. The color order of another modular plug must be corresponding with it (shown as the figure below).

T568A straight through connection

So does the standard T568B. Look at the figure below.

T568B straight through connection

Crossover Connections

This connection is different from the straight through one, for the color order is different on both ends. It’s no need to spend time remembering how many color orders there may be in this connection. Because you can get a crossover connection by wiring one end using T-568A standard and the other end using T-568B standard. Just like the figure below. Or remembering the color coding by simply switching the green set of wires in place with the orange set of wires. Put it in simple, switch the green (G) with the orange (O), and switch the green/white with the orange/white.

RJ45 crossover connection

Additional Information About RJ45 Coupler

After reading the above content, you may have a clear understanding on RJ45 connection. In this part, I want to introduce another useful component—RJ45 Coupler to you. Have you ever encountered such situation where your Ethernet cable is too short to contact your computer? At this time, RJ45 coupler can help you. An RJ45 coupler is a device with two female RJ45 jacks that joins two wires with Ethernet plugs together (shown as the figure below). The primary use for an RJ45 coupler is to turn two short Ethernet computer networking cables into one long cable. When processing this, the RJ45 couplers need to be built to carry two cables with the same bandwidth in the network. This can be a convenient way to make a long cable.

RJ45 coupler

Conclusion

As Ethernet systems provide flexible and effective ways to transmit signals. RJ45 connector, as a key part of Ethernet connectivity, are becoming more popular. Therefore, having a good command of knowledge about it is beneficial. FS.COM provides different types of RJ45 connectors and RJ45 Inline couplers, such as RJ45 to RJ45 coupler, Cat5e coupler, Cat6 keystone coupler and so on. If you want to know more details, please contact sales@fs.com.