Understand 10GBASE-T in Depth

Today, the Ethernet cabling system market is dominated by 10G links. Although fiber optic cables become popular with the advantages of high data transmission rate and low latency, many IT departments still use copper cabling for switch-to-switch or switch-to-server connections in 10G Ethernet applications. As one major copper cabling technology applied for 10GbE, 10GBASE-T was released by IEEE 802.3an in 2006 which specifies 10Gbps data transmission over four-pair copper cabling. Then, how much do you know about it? This article will guide you to understand 10GBASE-T in depth from five aspects—reach, backward compatibility, power consumption, latency and cost.

Reach

10GBASE-T is able to reach transmission distances up to 100 meters, and Cat6, Cat6a, Cat7, these three types of copper cables are commonly used with the 10GBASE-T standard. Cat6 bulk cable can perform at the bandwidth of up to 250 MHz, but it may reach only 55 meters at the speed of 10Gbps and 33 meters in high crosstalk conditions; Cat6a bulk cable is defined at frequencies up to 500MHz, and it can support the transmission distance over 100 meters at the speed of 10Gbps; Cat7 bulk cable can deliver 10G performance up to 600 MHz and at a distance of up to 100 meters. Here is a figure of a roll of cat6 cable.

roll of cat6 cable

Backward Compatibility

We know that Cat6 bulk cable, Cat6a bulk cable and Cat7 bulk cable are backward compatible with the Cat5 and Cat5e bulk cable standards, so these three types of cables can also be used for 10BASE-T, 100BASE-T and 1000BASE-T applications, though a little overqualified. Moreover, 10GBASE-T is backward compatible with 1000BAE-T. Therefore, 10GBASE-T can be deployed in preceding 1GbE switch infrastructures in data centers that are cabled with Cat6, Cat6a or Cat7 cabling. This enables data center managers to save costs while upgrading the network to 10GbE.

Power Consumption

According to the study, the early physical layer interface chips (PHYs) consumed too much power for widespread adoption. The original gigabit chips were roughly 6.5 Warts per port. With the process of improvements, the chips are now under 1 Wart per port. In addition, the PHYs benefit a lot from the latest manufacturing processes in 10GBASE-T. And the technology will continue to reduce the power consumption of PHYs.

Latency

Depending on Ethernet packet size, the latency for 1000BASE-T ranges from below 1μs to over 12μs, while 10GBASE-T’s latency ranges from just 1μs to less than 4μs—a much tighten latency range. And with a larger packet size, 10GBASE-T’s overall throughput offers an advantage over 1000BASE-T, and the latency for 10GBASE-T is more than three times lower than that of 1000BASE-T. The 1μs latency of 10GBASE-T is of no consequence to most users. Only the most latent-sensitive applications such as High Performance Computer (HPC) or high frequency trading systems would be affected by normal 10GbE latency.

Cost

As for cost, copper cables are cheaper, which is one reason for their wide applications. Take cables of FS.COM for example, Cat6 cable 1000 ft is about US$ 130.00; Cat6a cable 1000 ft is about US$ 180.00; Cat7 cable 305m is about US$ 600.00. Though 10G SFP+ DAC Twinax Cable is about US$ 42.00, from the perspective of structured cabling, it has a limited distance (up to 10m), and is not as flexible or cost-effective as 10GBASE-T.

Conclusion

From the above content, we can learn that 10GBASE-T offers the lowest cost media, and is backward compatible with preceding 1GbE networks. It can not only satisfy the increased bandwidth needs, but also greatly simplify the network and lower power consumption by replacing multiple gigabit connections with a single or dual-port 10GbE connection. Hence, it is an idea choice for 10G Ethernet copper cabling. And I hope after reading this article, you can have a better understanding on 10GBASE-T. FS.COM provides cost-effective solution for your 10BASE-T Ethernet network deployment. If you want to know more details, please visit our site.

Things You Have to Know About RJ45

We have been used to learning about everything happening around the world without going outdoors. But have you ever noticed the Ethernet cable plugged into your computer? Or to put it specifically, the crystal connector in your computer? That’s what we called RJ45 connector. It is a common component used to connect computers into Ethernet-based local area networks (LANs). This passage is going to focus on this simple connector.

Overview of RJ45 Connector

First, let’s make sense of what RJ45 is. The letter “RJ” represents “registered jack”, which is a standardized physical network interface for connecting telecommunication or data equipment. RJ45 connector features eight pins to which the wire strands of a cable interface electrically, and eight positions, spaced about 1mm apart, into which individual wires are inserted using special cable crimping tools. RJ45 connector, so-called 8P8C (Eight Position, Eight Contact), is the most common twisted-pair connector for Ethernet cables and networks.

RJ45 connector

Color Coding Diagram of RJ45 Connector

If you look at Ethernet cable connected to your computer carefully, you will find that it is color-coded. Color-coded wiring sequences exist as a cabling industry standard. When linking RJ45 connector to a cable, there are two wiring standards—the T568A and T568B, which define how the RJ45 pin-outs to arrange the individual eight wires. Here is a figure of T568A and T568B.

T568A and T568B

With regard to the two standards, there are two different connectivity forms. If both ends of the patch cords are wired on the basis of one standard, it is a straight through connection. If not, it is a crossover connection. Here is an illustration for the color code of RJ45 connectors when they are deployed in different connections.

Straight-Through Connections

No matter with the standard T-568A or T-568B, once the color order on one end is defined, so does the other end, which means the color order is same on both ends. Take T568A straight through connection for example. The color order of one modular plug is green/white, green, orange/white, blue, blue/white, orange, brown/white and brown. The color order of another modular plug must be corresponding with it (shown as the figure below).

T568A straight through connection

So does the standard T568B. Look at the figure below.

T568B straight through connection

Crossover Connections

This connection is different from the straight through one, for the color order is different on both ends. It’s no need to spend time remembering how many color orders there may be in this connection. Because you can get a crossover connection by wiring one end using T-568A standard and the other end using T-568B standard. Just like the figure below. Or remembering the color coding by simply switching the green set of wires in place with the orange set of wires. Put it in simple, switch the green (G) with the orange (O), and switch the green/white with the orange/white.

RJ45 crossover connection

Additional Information About RJ45 Coupler

After reading the above content, you may have a clear understanding on RJ45 connection. In this part, I want to introduce another useful component—RJ45 Coupler to you. Have you ever encountered such situation where your Ethernet cable is too short to contact your computer? At this time, RJ45 coupler can help you. An RJ45 coupler is a device with two female RJ45 jacks that joins two wires with Ethernet plugs together (shown as the figure below). The primary use for an RJ45 coupler is to turn two short Ethernet computer networking cables into one long cable. When processing this, the RJ45 couplers need to be built to carry two cables with the same bandwidth in the network. This can be a convenient way to make a long cable.

RJ45 coupler

Conclusion

As Ethernet systems provide flexible and effective ways to transmit signals. RJ45 connector, as a key part of Ethernet connectivity, are becoming more popular. Therefore, having a good command of knowledge about it is beneficial. FS.COM provides different types of RJ45 connectors and RJ45 Inline couplers, such as RJ45 to RJ45 coupler, Cat5e coupler, Cat6 keystone coupler and so on. If you want to know more details, please contact sales@fs.com.